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Auditory-Verbal Therapy

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A family centered approach developed to teach spoken language through listening.

Auditory-Verbal Therapy facilitates optimal acquisition of spoken language through listening by newborns, infants, toddlers, and young children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Auditory-Verbal Therapy promotes early diagnosis, one-on-one therapy, and state-of-the-art audiologic management and technology. Parents and caregivers actively participate in therapy. Through guidance, coaching, and demonstration, parents become the primary facilitators of their child's spoken language development. Ultimately, parents and caregivers gain confidence that their child can have access to a full range of academic, social, and occupational choices throughout life. Auditory-Verbal Therapy must be conducted in adherence to all 10 Principles LSLS of Auditory-Verbal Therapy.

Principles of LSLS Auditory-Verbal Therapy
1. Promote early diagnosis of hearing loss in newborns, infants, toddlers, and young children, followed by immediate audiologic management and Auditory-Verbal Therapy.

2. Recommend immediate assessment and use of appropriate, state-of-the-art hearing technology to obtain maximum benefits of auditory stimulation.

3. Guide and coach parents¹ to help their child use hearing as the primary sensory modality in developing spoken language without the use of sign language or emphasis on lipreading.

4. Guide and coach parents¹ to become the primary facilitators of their child's listening and spoken language development through active consistent participation in individualized Auditory-Verbal Therapy.

5. Guide and coach parents¹ to create environments that support listening for the acquisition of spoken language throughout the child's daily activities.

6. Guide and coach parents¹ to help their child integrate listening and spoken language into all aspects of the child's life.

7. Guide and coach parents¹ to use natural developmental patterns of audition, speech, language, cognition, and communication.

8. Guide and coach parents¹ to help their child self-monitor spoken language through listening.

9. Administer ongoing formal and informal diagnostic assessments to develop individualized Auditory-Verbal treatment plans, to monitor progress and to evaluate the effectiveness of the plans for the child and family.

10. Promote education in regular schools with peers who have typical hearing and with appropriate services from early childhood onwards.
*An Auditory-Verbal Practice requires all 10 principles.
¹The term "parents" also includes grandparents, relatives, guardians, and any caregivers who interact with the child.
(Adapted from the Principles originally developed by Doreen Pollack, 1970)
Adopted by the AG Bell Academy for Listening and Spoken Language®, July 26, 2007.

Readings Pertaining to Auditory-Verbal Therapy and Practice

Auditory-Verbal International, Inc.® (1991). Auditory-Verbal Position Statement. The Auricle, 4 (4), 11-15.

Auditory-Verbal International, Inc.® (1993). AVI Principles and Rules of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Auditory-Verbal International, Inc.® (1993). AVI Scope of Practice. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Auditory-Verbal International, Inc.® (2003). Recommended Protocol for Audiological Assessment, Hearing Aid Evaluation, and Cochlear Implant Monitoring. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Auditory-Verbal International, Inc.® (2005). Principles of Auditory-Verbal Practice. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Auditory-Verbal Network (1988). A Parent's Guide to Auditory-Verbal Therapy. Denver, CO: Author.

Beebe, H. (1953). A Guide to Help the Severely Hard of Hearing Child: Testing their Hearing/Ways to Develop Normal Speech. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger.

Beebe, H. (1978). Deaf children can learn to hear. Journal of Communication Disorders, 11, 193-200.

Cole, E. (1992). Listening and Talking: A Guide to Promoting Spoken Language in your Hearing-Impaired Children. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Cole, E. & Flexer, C. (2007). Children with Hearing Loss: Developing Listening and Talking Birth to Six. San Diego, CA: Plural.

Cole, E., & Gregory, H. (Eds.) (1986). Auditory learning. The Volta Review, 88 (5).

Dornan, D. (1999). "Let's hear and say:" Current overview of Auditory-Verbal Therapy. Asia Pacific Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing, 4 (2), 141-154.

Duncan, J. (2001). Conversational skills of children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing in an integrated setting. The Volta Review, 101 (4), 193-211.

Duncan, J., & Rochecouste, J. (1999). Length and complexity of utterances produced by kindergarten children with impaired hearing and their hearing peers. Australian Journal of Education of the Deaf, 5, 63-69.

Durieux-Smith, A., Olds, J., Eriks-Brophy, A., Fitzpatrick, E., Duquette, C., & Capelli, M. (1998). Outcomes of AVT: Results of a follow-up study. ASHA Leader, 3 (16), 99.

Easterbrooks, S. R. & O'Rourke, C. M. (2001). Gender differences in response to auditory-verbal intervention in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 146 (4), 309-319.
Easterbrooks, S., O'Rourke, C., & Todd, N. (2000). Child and family factors associated with deaf children's success in A-V Therapy. The American Journal of Otology, 2 (3), 1-4.

Eriks-Brophy, A. (2004). Outcomes of Auditory-Verbal Therapy: A review of the evidence and a call for action. The Volta Review, 104 (1), 21-35.

Ernst, M. (Ed.) (1977). Using audition to develop spoken language in children with severe and profound hearing loss. Seminars in Hearing, 18 (3).

Estabrooks, W. (Ed.) (1994). Auditory-Verbal Therapy: For Parents and Professionals. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Estabrooks, W. (2007). The Auditory-Verbal approach: A professional point of view. In S. Schwartz (Ed.) Choices in Deafness (3rd ed.). Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Estabrooks, W. (Ed.) (1998). Cochlear Implants for Kids. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Estabrooks, W. (Ed.). (2001). 50 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Auditory-Verbal Therapy. Toronto, Ontario: Learning to Listen Foundation.

Estabrooks, W. (2005). We Learned to Listen. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Estabrooks, W. (2006). Auditory-Verbal Therapy and Practice. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Estabrooks, W., & Birkenshaw-Fleming, L. (1994). Hear & listen! Talk & sing! Toronto, Canada: Arisa.

Estabrooks, W., & Birkenshaw-Fleming, L. (2003). Songs for listening! Songs for life! Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Estabrooks, W., MacIver-Lux, K., Katz, L., & De Melo, M. E. (2004). Listen to this! Volume 1. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Estabrooks, W., MacIver-Lux, K., Katz, L., & De Melo, M. E. (2006). Listen to this! Volume 2. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Estabrooks, W., & Marlowe, J. (2000). The baby is listening. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Estabrooks, W., & Schwartz, R. (2005). The ABCs of AVT. (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Flexer, C. (1999). Facilitating Hearing and Listening in Young Children (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Singular.

Goldberg, D.M. (1993). Auditory-Verbal philosophy: A tutorial. The Volta Review, 95 (3), 181-186.

Goldberg, D.M. (1999). Early auditory skills assessment and development: How to test and teach listening to children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Australian Journal Of Education Of The Deaf, 5, 49-54.

Goldberg, D.M., & Flexer, C. (1993). Outcome survey of Auditory-Verbal graduates: A study of clinical efficacy. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 4, 189-200.

Goldberg, D.M., & Flexer, C. (2001). Auditory-Verbal graduates: An updated outcome survey of clinical efficacy. Journal of The American Academy of Audiology, 12, 406-414.

Goldstein, M. (1939). The Acoustic Method. St. Louis: Laryngoscope Press.

Griffiths, C. (Ed.). (1974). Proceedings Of The First International Conference On Auditory Techniques. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Lim, S. Y. & Simser, J. (2005). Auditory-Verbal Therapy for children with hearing impairment. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 34(4), 307-12.

Ling, D. (Ed.). (1984). Early Intervention for Hearing-Impaired Children: Oral Options. San Diego, CA: College-Hill.

Ling, D. (1989). Foundations of Spoken Language for Hearing-Impaired Children. Washington, D.C.: A.G. Bell.

Ling, D. (1993). Auditory-Verbal options for children with hearing impairment: Helping to pioneer an applied science. The Volta Review, 95 (3), 187-196.

Ling, D. (2002). Speech and the Hearing-Impaired Child: Theory and Practice. (2nd Ed.).Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Ling, D., & Ling, A. (1978). Aural Habilitation: The Verbal Foundations of Learning in Hearing-Impaired Children. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Mangiardi, A. (1995). 25 Ways to Promote Spoken Language in your Child with a Hearing Loss. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell.

Marlowe, J. (1993). Audiologic assessment and management in the Auditory-Verbal approach. The Volta Review, 95 (3), 205-215.

McCaffrey, H.A., Davis, B. L., MacNeilage, P. F., & von Hapsburg, D. (2000). Multichannel cochlear implantation and the organization of early speech. The Volta Review, 101, 5-29.

Neuss , D. (2006). The Ecological transition to Auditory-Verbal Therapy: Experiences of parents whose children use cochlear implants. The Volta Review, 106 (2), 195-222.

Pollack, D. (1970). Educational Audiology for the Limited Hearing Infant. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Pollack, D. (1985). Educational Audiology for the Limited Hearing Infant and Preschooler. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Pollack D. (1993). Reflections of a pioneer. The Volta Review, 95 (3), 197-209.

Pollack, D., Goldberg, D., & Caleffe-Schenck, N. (1997). Educational Audiology for the Limited Hearing Infant and Preschooler: An Auditory-Verbal program (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Rhoades, E. A. (1982). The Auditory-Verbal approach to educating hearing-impaired children. Topics in Language Disorders, 3, 8-16.

Rhoades, E.A. (2001). Language progress with an Auditory-Verbal approach for young children with hearing loss. International Pediatrics, 16 (1), 41-47.

Rhoades, E. A. (2003). Lexical-semantic and morphosyntactic language assessment in Auditory-Verbal intervention: A position paper. The Volta Review, 103, 169-184.

Rhoades, E. A. (2006). Research outcomes of Auditory-Verbal intervention: Is the approach justified? Deafness and Education International, 8 (3), 125-143.

Rhoades, E. A. & Chisholm, T.H. (2000). Global language progress with an Auditory-Verbal approach for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. The Volta Review, 102 (1), 5-24.

Roberts, S.B. & Rickards, F.W. (1994a). A survey of graduates of an Australian integrated auditory/oral preschool. Part I: Amplification usage, communication practices, and speech intelligibility. The Volta Review, 96, 185-205.

Roberts, S.B. & Rickards, F.W. (1994b). A survey of graduates of an Australian integrated auditory/oral preschool. Part II: Academic achievement, utilization of support services, and friendship patterns. The Volta Review, 96, 207-236.

Robertson, L. (2000). Literacy Learning for Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell Association for The Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

Robertson, L., Annunziato. G. D. & Hainzinger, S. L. (2006). Story retelling patterns among children with and without hearing loss: Effects of repeated practice and parent-child attunement. The Volta Review, 106 (2), 147-170.

Robertson, L., & Flexer, C. (1993). Reading development: A parent survey of children with hearing impairment who developed speech and language through the Auditory-Verbal method. The Volta Review, 95 (3), 251-261.

Simser, J. (1993). Auditory-Verbal Intervention: Infants and toddlers. The Volta Review, 95 (3), 217-229.

Simser, J. (1999). Parents: The essential partner in the habilitation of children with hearing impairment. Australian Journal of Education of the Deaf, 5, 55-62.

Srinivasan, P. (1996). Practical Aural Habilitation for Speech-Language Pathologists and Educators of Hearing-Impaired Children. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Tyler, R.S. (1990). Speech perception with the nucleus cochlear implant in children trained with the auditory/verbal approach. Am J Otol, 11(2), 99-107.

Urbantschitsch, V. (1982). Auditory Training for Deaf Mutism and Acquired Deafness (S. R. Silverman, Trans.). Washington, DC: A.G. Bell. (Original work published in 1895).

Vaughan, V. (Ed.) (1981). Learning to Listen (Revised ed.) New York: Beaufort Books.

Wedenberg, E. (1954). Auditory training of severely hard of hearing preschool children: Results from a Swedish series comprising 36 children. Acta Otolayrngol Suppl. 110, 82.

Wray, D., Flexer, C., & Vacarro, V., (1997). Classroom performance of children who are deaf or hard of hearing and who learned spoken communication through the Auditory-Verbal approach: An evaluation of treatment efficacy. The Volta Review, 99 (2), 107-120.

Wu, C., & Brown, P. (2004). Parents' and teachers' expectations of Auditory-Verbal Therapy. The Volta Review, 104 (1), 5-20.

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